Commons Minutes for February 2019

February 2019 Minutes • Østgarðr Commons

The February commons meeting was held February 15 at the workplace of Ervald the Optimistic in Queens. Here are the minutes as recorded by Mathghamhain Ua Ruadháin. The officers’ reports are attached at the end.


Present — 12 Council members, 5 Additional populace members

  • Suuder Saran, Il-Khan
  • Lada Monguligin, Il-Khatun
  • Alienor Salton, Seneschal
  • Laila al-Sanna’ al-Andalusiyya, Chatelaine
  • Donnchadh mac Eoin, MoAS
  • Mathghamhain Ua Ruadháin, Herald, Youth Marshal
  • Ervald LaCoudre, Armored Combat Marshal
  • Alec MacLachlan, Fencing Marshal, Deputy Seneschal
  • Sarah of Whyt Whey, Chronicler
  • Anne of Østgarðr, Webminister
  • Esnede O Murrin, Northpass Seneschal
  • Nagashima Ichiro Ujimichi, Lions End Seneschal
  • Badr al-Abyari
  • Bruno Bruni
  • Jibril al-Ghazal
  • Bahja al-Azraq
  • Richard the Poor

Online — 1

  • Francisco de Braga, Exchequer

Absent Officers — 6

  • Arnbiorg Helga Niálsdóttir, Archery Marshal
  • Rakkurai of Kamakura, Minister of Lists
  • Ian of Clan Mitchell, Chamberlain
  • Sofya Gianetta di Trieste, Historian
  • Vika Grigina z Prahy, Whyt Whey Seneschal
  • Brandr Aronsson, Brokenbridge Seneschal


  • Called to order at 8:05 pm.


  • Thank you, Ervald for arranging the use of tonight’s site, and for doing the work to make it accessible by training on the freight elevator.  
  • Thank you to Sofya, for arranging the site for March Commons at the Mount Kisco American Legion Hall, and to Uji, for arranging April’s use of the Greenvale Diner.
  • Laila is representing Østgarðr & the East at Gulf Wars A&S Championships.  Vivat!
  • Thank you to the officers for submitting your reports ahead of the meeting. This information is valuable, and having it ahead of time makes the meeting go more smoothly.

Report Items For Discussion

  • Alienor: The bylaws committee has a draft available for review after the meeting this evening; please take a look and provide feedback.  
    • Thanks to Mathghamhain Ua Ruadháin, John Elys, Lada Monguligin, Alec MacLachlan, Mistress Katherine Barr, Nagashima Ichiro Ujimichi, Brandr Aronsson, Vika Grigina z Prahy, Esnede O Murrin, Angelica di Nova Lipa, Þórfinnr Hróðgeirsson, and Ibrahim al-Rashid for their contributions.
  • Alienor: Send recommendations for provincial awards to the viceregents!
    • Suuder: We can not be everywhere. We know people are doing good work out there. Please come and tell us about it so that we can recognize it properly.
    • Lada: Events will be happening more frequently in the coming months and there will be courts at which those awards can be distributed.
    • Laila: What awards does the province give?
      • Alienor: We have a page up with this information which we can send around.
      • Lada: We should include this information on the province’s web site.
    • Anne: How do we know what awards a person already has?
      • Alienor: They’re listed on the Order of Precedence web site, “the OP”.
      • Lada: It can be difficult to find the OP page for each of our awards, so sometimes I start by finding someone who already has one. We should make it easier to find these.
      • Anne: I’ll work on getting these added to the site.
    • Esnede: The East Kingdom has a push for people to make wiki pages for themselves including pictures and background info.
      • Mathghamhain: If you write content for your wiki page but need help with posting it, talk to me or Anne and we can help with the markup.
  • Alienor: There are several bags of Gold Key loaner garb and chatelaine’s demo materials that were delivered to us — we need to determine whether they should go to Laila as the new chatelaine, or to provincial storage?
    • Laila: We have space for some items, and it would be convenient to have them on hand, but maybe not everything.
    • Suuder: We can store items you don’t have room for in our storage unit in Bay Ridge.
  • Suuder: We recently received a bag of supplies donated by Devra the Baker.
  • Alienor: Has the provincial feast gear been inventoried?
    • Lada: No, the volunteers who had offered to assist with this became unavailable. We’d like to complete this inventory soon, but it would be good to have experienced feast cooks on hand to evaluate the items so they could recommend which items needed to be replaced.
    • Uji: I would like to help but my work schedule is keeping me very busy.
    • Suuder: We should ask around to see if there are other cooks available to help.

Turn-Out and Volunteer Opportunities

  • Alienor: On February 23, please support our populace at the King’s and Queen’s Bardic Championships & Baronial Investiture in Dragonship Haven.
    • Laila: Ajir and I are competing.
    • Alienor: Ride shares may be arranged in the provincial Facebook group or in email to the populace list (
    • Lada: The hall the event is being held in is great, with lovely acoustics.
  • Ervald: On March 9 and 10, I will be at Big Apple Comic Con, and have a table. Is there someone who wants to come and represent the province there? The current showing of Knight Fight is generating some interest in armored fighting.
    • Donnchadh might be available to do this.
    • Let’s make sure that there are appropriate chatelaine-type materials on hand.
  • For the April 6 Coronation, calls for volunteers will be posted over the coming week on our provincial mailing list and to the provincial Facebook group.  Please keep an eye out for those opportunities.
    • PayPal pre-registration will be available soon for Coronation.
  • For Apr 27th’s Day of the Decameron, pre-registration is open; seats are limited.
  • Alienor: For the May 4 spring schola, Lions End requests donations of items for their silent auction, and teachers for classes.
    • Uji: Talk to Jenna Childslayer if you’re interested in teaching.
  • For May 11th’s Siege of Granada, PayPal pre-registration should be available soon.
  • The June 8 Lions End’s demo in Farmingdale is seeking fighters and fencers; would like enough turnout to hold a mini-tournament.
    • Uji: Last year’s demo went well, but there was not a lot of recruiting because the Lions End chatelaine serves in name only.
  • Also on June 8, we’re looking for volunteers to represent the province at the  Brooklyn Pride demo.
    • This is a relatively simple demo, just a table and a popup and 3–4 people.
    • We did this last year and did actually recruit some new people.
    • Laila: I would go to either of these, tell me which you need?
  • Also on June 7-9 there is a large demo at a medieval-themed Girl Scout Faire upstate.
    • If you are not planning to attend one of the local demos, please consider joining with our archery champion, Caitlin, to represent the province; this might be an opportunity to recruit some younger members.
  • A volunteer is needed to steward the An Dubh / Østgarðr challenge.
  • Pennsic pre-registration is open.
    • Please volunteer to serve at Runnymede dinner at Pennsic.  
    • We need a volunteer to help coordinate production of approximately 20 (one per barony) embroidered floor pillows (pillow covers) as gifts to the Runnymede dinner attendees.  
  • We could perhaps demo at the Afropunk Festival in Brooklyn, August 24–25.  
  • Our chatelaine would like to offer A&S starter kits as gifts to newcomers, and is soliciting donations from our artisans.
    • Laila: I recently attended an event in another branch which gave newcomers at their events a simple craft kit tucked into a little plastic bag, so they had something they could learn right away and get started on doing.
    • Alienor: Godiva, the M0AS in Whyt Whey, does fantastic little A&S kits.
    • Laila: If you’re up for making an A&S kit, bag it up and we’ll distribute it.
  • Our chronicler requests submissions for the newsletter.
    • Categories include shoutouts (love & support for other members) and village square (articles, non-SCA events with a historical theme, and photos or artwork of interest to the populace).
    • Sarah: Hoping to publish around the last week of February, and then on a quarterly basis going forward.
  • Our deputy book herald has stepped back, and we are looking for volunteers.
    • Donnchadh and Bahja are interested.
  • Coronet committee seeks a volunteer to run an online fundraiser.  
    • Designs for both field and court coronets were recently selected.  
    • The cost of the leather field coronets was approved by the finance committee; now we’re looking to fundraise to cover the cost of the metal court coronets.

Upcoming Events

Travel times are estimated from Central Park; your mileage will vary.

  • February 16-17, Ædult Swim, in Æthelmarc (Milton PA, 3 hours W): Armored, Fencing, A&S.
  • March 2, EK CoP Bardic Challenge, in Iron Bog (Moorestown NJ, 2 hours SW)
    • Laila: Please come; the new EK opera company is doing its first performance.
  • April 27, A Day of the Decameron, at the Mount Kisco Legion Hall: Period Bardic, Music, Feasting.
  • April 27, Balfar’s Challenge, in Dragonship Haven (Southwestern CT, 2? hours NW): Armored, Fencing, Thrown Weapons, Archery, Youth Combat.
  • May 11, Siege of Granada, at the Putnam County Veteran Memorial Park: Armored, Fencing, A&S
  • June 8, Lions End demo, in Farmingdale.
  • June 8, Pride demo, in Brooklyn.
  • June 7–9, Girl Scout Faire demo, in Glenn Linn (Greenwich NY, 3 hrs N).
  • June 7-9, Southern Region War Camp, in Carillion (Manalapan NJ, 1 hour SW)
  • June 15, K&Q Archery Championships, in Beyond the Mountain (New Britain CT, 2 hours NE)
  • June 15, Potted Arms, in An Dubh (Huntington, 1 hour E)
  • June 29, Blood & Axes, at Putnam County Veteran Memorial Park: Armored, Fencing, Thrown Weapons, Archery, Youth Combat
  • July 20, EK Novice Day, in Rusted Woodlands (Tappan NY, 30 min. N)
  • July 26 – August 11, Pennsic, in Æthelmarc (Coopers Lake PA, 6 hours W)

There are two proposed events which are not yet scheduled

  • Fight for a Cause, at Christ Church of New Brighton, Staten Island: Armored combat, Pageantry.
  • An Dubh / Østgarðr challenge, somewhere in or around Lions End

Upcoming Commons Meetings

  • March 15: To be held in Northpass, at the Mount Kisco Legion Hall.
  • April 19: To be held in Lions End, at the Greenvale Diner.
  • May 17:
    • Looking for spaces in Brooklyn or Manhattan.
    • If we don’t come up with an attractive alternative, we’ll go with holding it in Manhattan, at the home of Alienor’s father-in-law on the Upper West Side.

Other Business

  • Suuder: Let’s do something fun and unexpected! It’s time for some shenanigans! We’re looking for suggestions of interesting pranks and amusing stunts, locally and with our neighboring branches.
    • Badr: We could start a campaign of “put-pocketing” — trying to plant tokens in other people’s gear without them noticing.
    • Ervald: Or slip a coin into someone’s drink that says “you’ve been poisoned.”
    • Uji: We could have a murder mystery at an upcoming event
    • Suuder: Yes — keep coming up with new ideas. Surprise us!
  • Esnede: I’m working on hosting a workshop to make favors for the queen, using the embroidery machines at my shop.
    • We may also be able to use the whole shop, including the classroom space, and use it as a demo and recruiting opportunity.
    • Lada: We’ve been talking about having a scribal weekend with a color-theory class from the House of the Lotus — maybe these could be combined?
    • Esnede: Best possible dates seem like Sunday April 14, or Sunday May 19. Will post about this online and see which date works the best for other people.
  • Laila: We’re hosting a party at Pennsic, probably on the middle Sunday.
    • Will be located at the Great Dark Horde camp, near the Østgarðr camp.
    • The theme is Persian, in the court of Shah Abbās the First (circa 1600).
    • We’re looking for people to help us with the event.
  • Ervald: Are there any fighters who are up for doing an exhibition fight at a sports bar in Brooklyn before a showing of Knight Fight?
  • Esnede: We would love to have a fighter practice that’s closer to Northpass.


  • Meeting closed at 8:45 pm.

February 2019 Reports • Østgarðr Commons

Viceregals • Suuder Saran & Lada Monguligin

Lots of local events on the calendar. As we travel the various reaches of Our Province we’d like to recognize those who work to support it. Please send us your award recommendations!

We have a few people going to K&Q bardic champs, and it’s not too far at Dragonship Haven.  We encourage people to go support our populace.

Estrella War is this coming weekend as well and Gulf Wars is not too far behind.  Safe travels to anyone and everyone, who is going to either or both, including His Highness.

Also at Gulf Wars, our own Laila will be representing the East and Ostgardr.  Our Hearts go with you.

Runnymede Dinner at Pennsic:
• Please consider signing up to volunteer to help at the dinner:

  • Gifts for Runnymede: Floor pillows with embroidered heraldry.  Anyone interested to volunteer to help coordinate this?

Seneschal • Alienor Salton

NorthEastern New York 2019 Girl Scout Jamboree, Washington County Fairgrounds, June 7-9th,  Facebook group for SCA demo attendees / organizers:  Our provincial archery champion, Caitlin Straquin, plans to attend.  Would love to see a full contingent from the province.

Bear’s Tavern (Northpass) and BaconBridge (Brokenbridge) have been canceled for this year.  We look forward to their return to next year’s event calendar.

We need a volunteer to steward the An Dubh / Østgarðr challenge.  Is anyone interested and available to do so?

EK law was updated at the most recent Curia, held at Birka at the end of January.  The new law is found here: and the changes from the Curia here:

Bylaws Committee • Mathghamhain Ua Ruadháin

The bylaws committee has made additional progress since last month, including an in-person meeting and some productive online conversations.

There are a few areas in which questions remain to be resolved, but we’ve reached the point at which it seems like it would be productive to gather feedback from a larger audience. I’ll bring copies of the new draft bylaws that folks can review at the February commons meeting, and if no major objections are raised, I’d like to circulate them to the officers and populace for commentary and feedback with the goal of hopefully getting them finalized and ratified in the next couple of months.

It has been nearly three years since a committee was empaneled to work on updating the province’s bylaws, and I’m pleased that we seem to be approaching a conclusion to this effort. Thanks in particular to John Elys, Lada Monguligin, and Alec MacLachlan for their work as committee members, to Mistress Katherine Barr for her commentary as Kingdom Seneschal, to Nagashima Ichiro Ujimichi, Brandr Aronsson, Vika Grigina z Prahy and Esnede O Murrin for representing the interests of their cantons, and to my Whyt Whey neighbors Angelica di Nova Lipa, Þórfinn Hróðgeirsson, and Ibrahim al-Rashid for their substantial commentary on the text.

Exchequer • Francisco de Braga

In short, we have funds available between our Capital One & TD Bank accounts.

The 2018 End of year report has been submitted.

Four uncashed checks associated with the Capital One Bank account have been voided and new checks have been written from our TD Bank. As a result we have begun the process of closing the Capital One bank account and are awaiting feedback on the next steps. Once completed Money will be consolidated into our TD Bank account.

Upwards of 18 People have submitted their Paypal Preregistration for the Decameron. If you would like to attend it is recommended that you Pre-register!

We are waiting on the regional exchequer approval for paypal preregistration for Coronation. Hopefully this will be available in the near future.

Brokenbridge Valhalla NMS documentation & associated check has been issued. We are in the process of attempting to reconcile the gate sheet which will be issued as soon as possible. Income associated with Paypal has been deposited and cash received the day of the event will be deposited in the next day or two. Reimbursement associated with the event have not been issued at this time.

Chatelaine • Laila al-Sanna’ al-Andalusiyya

I have only one item for the agenda this month. I recently learned that some baronies give “newcomer gifts” that include things like tiny A&S kits to get people started. I think that sounds neat, and I’d like to implement that here, and solicit donations from our Provincial artisans.

I also need to follow up with the Heralds about adding a persona consult to the herald’s table, but that can probably happen outside of the main meeting time.

Diversity Deputy • Apollodora Alethes of Delphi

Everything is going great with the Schola! We are fully staffed and ready to go!!

We will need someone to run the Brooklyn Pride Demo this year as I will be getting married around that time!!! 😀 There is also an Afro punk festival, I’m looking into, in the city in August that we will need a non pennsic goer to run as a demo.

Arts & Sciences • Donnchadh mac Eoin

Events: Coming up, the K&Q Bardic is on the 23rd in Dragonship Haven (New Haven CT). There will be an A&S display there, focused on Dragonship Haven’s 40th Anniversary. If you’ve been part of the Barony at some point and have artifacts to share, contact the baronial MoAS at

Workshops, etc: Garb workshops have been a hit! Thanks to everyone who has been hosting, mentoring, and participating!

Individual Acclaim: Our own Sayyida Laila al-Sanna’ al-Andalusiyya has been selected as the East Kingdom representative to the Gulf Wars A&S Champions’ Battle! Wish her luck, not that she needs it.

Herald • Mathghamhain Ua Ruadháin

There hasn’t been much heraldic activity in the province over the course of the last month, although I am continuing to participate in discussions at the kingdom and society level.

As the person who was serving as the deputy book herald has been unavailable recently, I would like to find someone else to take this position and assist with name and armory consultations for the local populace; if you’re interested in this type of work, please let me know.

Armored Combat • Ervald LaCoudre

Combat practice will resume outdoors in March, with individual practices cancelled if the weather is bad.

Fencing • Alec MacLachlan

It’s too cold to fence outside.

Any word on the proposed practice sites we discussed at the last Commons?

Archery • Arnbiorg Helga Niálsdóttir

No archery going on, should start up when weather permits.

Youth Combat • Mathghamhain Ua Ruadháin

No youth combat activity to report this month. Looking forward to the return of warmer temperatures.

Minister of Lists • Rakkurai of Kamakura

Nothing to report.

Webminister • Anne of Østgarðr

  • All Ostgardr officer email accounts have been fully transitioned to new office holders, to my knowledge
  • The Seahorse is now a Google group! Everyone who was receiving it should still receive it, and now so also should anyone on the Ostgardr NYC list. You can now also subscribe or unsubscribe at will online.
  • Other website updates as necessary and as requested continue.

Social Media Deputy • Apollodora Alethes of Delphi

Nothing to report.

Chronicler • Sarah of Whyt Whey

I’m happy to report that I’m all set up with my Chronicler email and am starting to compile our next E-Horse issue. I’m looking into commercial (inexpensive) mailing list services like MailChimp or Robly, but would appreciate any advice on that front.

I’m re-envisioning the structure our newsletter as follows:

  • Welcome—a line or two of general information about Østgarðr; perhaps a mission statement if available?
  • Upcoming Events—list of events scheduled for now–May (which is when I plan on publishing the next issue).
  • Laudamus te! (shoutouts)—this will be a public space to congratulate people who have won scrolls, or done something amazing, or just generally want to show love and support for other members. Submissions can come from anywhere and anyone.
  • Arts & Schola—a list of workshops & practices (not events) coming up along with a short description and a link to learn more about each.
  • Seconds from last Commons Meetings—i.e. Minutes, abridged by me, with a link to the full versions on our blog.
  • Village Square—a public space where people can submit articles, thoughts, non-SCA events, photos, artwork, memes…whatever they want! I think it’ll be a good way for members to get to know each other even if they can’t always come to events, or get an idea of what else is going on in the province even if they only go to a few practices.

In that vein, I’m happy to receive both advice and content from you, good officers! Please send me your shoutouts, and anything you’d like to put in the Village Square. (If you’d like inspiration, my submission to the Village Square will be this song, which has been an earworm of mine for the past several weeks: England – Anon. 1225: Miri it is while sumer ilast – YouTube) I’d also love some photos if you have some.

I’m waffling on whether to solicit content on the Facebook group for this first issue—any advice? I guess we’ll see how full it looks after Commons.

I hope to publish by the end of this month, or first week of March, and quarterly thereafter. Does anyone have any experience regarding which days are best to send the newsletter?

Chamberlain • Ian of Clan Mitchell

No changes in the last month.

Historian • Sofya Gianetta di Trieste

History is happening and being reported. Should have everything compiled within the next two weeks.

Unfortunately, I will be unable to attend our Commons meeting on Friday. I mistakenly thought our commons meeting was on the 22nd and have another commitment.

Coronet committee • Sofya Gianetta di Trieste

The Coronet committee met last week and made a decision for both field and metal coronet designs! There was much rejoicing! Lada will be drawing the designs we have chosen and we will be submitting to artisans for bids. Although the field coronets were approved by the finance committee, we would like to create an online fundraiser for the metal coronets.

Whyt Whey • Vika Grigina z Prahy

Quiet and wintery.

– Solar on Feb. 7 covered the A&S Rubric.
– Next month’s Solar topic is still under discussion.
– We are having some difficulties rescheduling Sumptuary Sunday.  

Side Jobs: Runnymede dinner: there’s a Facebook group set up for organizing the business.  Their Excellencies Settmour, our Vicereine, the chef, another Settmour organizer, and your humble correspondent are in it.  Scoping Google Docs are being produced at a tremendous rate. Things are well in hand for the present.

I will not, alas, be able to attend tomorrow’s Commons (either in person or as a disembodied voice).

Northpass • Esnede O Murrin

We have lots of things in the works. Dance and A&S classes every month.

Bear’s Tavern – Cancelled due to site trouble.
Blood and Axes 3 – June 29th
Barleycorn – September 7th

Lions End • Nagashima Ichiro Ujimichi

As spring approaches, we look forward to our spring schola on May 4th, titled, Return of the Lions. It has been posted to EK calendar with updates coming in the near future. We are seeking donations for our silent auction, and anyone interested in teaching a class should get in touch with Jenna Childslayer.

We also have been invited back to do a demo at the Farmingdale Fire Department’s Annual Fair. This is scheduled for June 8, 2019. I am in the process of writing up a proposal for this to send to the Village. We are seeking area fighters and fencers, including Marshals who are not traveling to Southern Regional War Camp to come support our demo. If there are enough fighters, we can have a mini tournament with prizes.

I spoke to our Exchequer and she will be ordering the insurance certificates for both of these.

Brokenbridge • Brandr Aronsson

Deck the Halls of Valhalla was a rousing success and I want to thank all the volunteers and everyone who attended for making it the best one yet.  Ragnarr did an amazing job as Event Steward and will take up the job for next year as well. We will be reserving the same weekend for 2020 shortly.

We continue our Commons / A&S days. Our next one is March 10 “Turning your scraps into Bias tape”.

We have a new deputy exchequer who will be taking over for Arnora in September. Courtney Vonada. Arnora will be taking over as webminister.

Upcoming Events

Spring Coronation • April 6 • Mathghamhain Ua Ruadháin

Preparations continue apace for the coronation of Ozurr and Fortune in Wantagh on April 6.

Please plan on joining us for the event — the site is easy to get to, and this will be the first coronation hosted by the province in over a decade, so come and see all of the pomp and pageantry.

Pre-registration by mail has begin, but online pre-reg with PayPal has been delayed by turnover at the kingdom exchequer’s office — we hope to get that ironed out soon.

Following last month’s commons, Jean Xavier and I have toured the site and begun working out plans to how best to decorate and use the facilities. Conversations with royal staff and kingdom officers are underway about the day’s schedule.

We’ve been putting together a team to run the event, but still need additional volunteers. I’ll be posting some recruiting messages next week about a few specific areas we’re looking for help with, but don’t feel obliged to wait for those — if you’d like to get involved, let me know and I’m sure we can use your assistance!

Day of the Decameron • April 27 • Lilie Dubh, Artistic Director

Day of the Decameron will occur 73 days from the writing of this missive.

Mistress Sofya is VERY ABLY handling the site and the decor, I could not ask for a better partner. Her sense of style will produce a site that will look quite like a Florentine Villa.

Lord Friderich Grimme has been working on getting a solid menu together. His mundane job keeps him busy, but he is off next week for the February holiday (what used to be called Intersession Week). By the end of next week, we should have the full menu together.

Performers are working on their stories, and rehearsals are starting in earnest. I should have full timings by the end of February, and an initial day-flow. We have 18 stories, plus about 1-2 hours of music and a dance expo (just 5-10 minutes unfortunately, but it will be fun to see!).

Performers will all be in various types of late 14th century garb, and anyone else who wants can also ‘get more into the spirit’ by wearing appropriate clothing. Mistress Sofya will be handling the livery for the servers for the day, and they will be in Ostgardr colors.

Our set designers, Lord Brandr and Viscount Edward, are working on their creations. We are looking at creating items that can be used again. We will also be borrowing items from various Ostgardri, and from outside the Province for the day.

I am hopeful that we will also be able to video the day, and then perhaps sell copies. This is tentative. More when I know for sure.

There will be another report next month.

Siege of Grenada • May 11 • Jibril (report submitted by Alienor Salton)

Event is on the EK events calendar:

Honig is running the A&S competition and Firebow will run fencing.  Combat archery may be featured; Baron Corcrán is volunteering to run that.

Francisco will be setting up PayPal for preregistration.

Parks department application has been completed & will be mailed with check after it is counter-signed at commons on Friday.

Lada is working on the barter coordinator for the Silk Road.

Pennsic Encampment • July 27–August 10 • Mathghamhain Ua Ruadháin

Pre-registration is open!

Newcomers, let me know if you have any questions about camping with the province!

Returning folks, I’d love to hear any suggestions you might have about improving our encampment for the coming year.